Thursday, July 25, 2019

Disorders Involving the Sex Chromosomes Term Paper

Disorders Involving the Sex Chromosomes - Term Paper Example The chromosomes are numbered such that they are given the numerical figures 1†¦..22 and the 23rd is the one that determines the individual sex. In total there are 23 chromosomes in human beings, the 23d being the sex chromosome with x and y as the determinants. In the normal female, the chromosome number 23 will read xx while that of the male will be reading XY (Pinsky, Erickson and Schimke 234). The alteration of the normal reading leads to what is called chromosomal disorders. The chromosomal disorders leads to the addition or deletion of either X or Y-chromosomes. Several disorders have been identified as disorders in the sex chromosomes and demonstrate distinct characteristics as manifested phenotypically (Goldberg 157). It must be noted that there are significant difference between the disorders that arise from the autosomal chromosomes (1†¦22) and those of the sex chromosomes (Passarge 98). The chromosomes that determine sex in man is coded as XY while that of females is XX, the alteration of the arrangements may lead to any of the following conditions. Turner Syndrome It is coded as XO; it is referred to as monosomy X given that the complement Y-chromosomes is missing. The fact that the syndrome results into just one X chromosome without the Y chromosome, such individuals are always females (Milunsky and Milunsky 245). The incidence of the syndrome is quite uncommon and can only be found one in every five thousand people. One of the most significant effects of the condition is sterility (Milunsky and Milunsky 256). Klinefelter Syndrome This is also a rare syndrome as for every 1000 there is only one person with the condition. Unlike Turners syndrome that involves deletion of the Y chromosome, it involves the addition of the X chromosomes (Goldberg 165). The syndrome can appear in two forms XXY or XXXY. Most of the individuals affected by this kind of disorder are males due to the presence of the Y-chromosomes. The presence of the compounded X c hromosomes makes the individuals with the condition to posses female like qualities. The individuals are sterile and in the cases of the XXXY type retardation may results (Goldberg 184). Jacobs Syndrome In the Jacobs syndrome the individuals have the sex chromosomes coded as XYY, there is an additional Y chromosome and the individuals are always males or abnormally manifest male characteristics (Passarge 112). These individuals are supper human beings as they are very tall and in many cases may suffer from acne. Research also indicates that most of these people are criminals as they show abnormally high-level aggression and most of the inmates are of these conditions. The frequency of this syndrome is 1 in every 2000 (Passarge 119). Triple-X Most of the individuals in this category are females as the syndrome involves the addition of the X chromosome and the various codes are as follows XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX (Pinsky, Erickson and Schimke 253). Due to the extra X chromosomes, the casu alties assume abnormal female characteristics and the associated problems such as those of infertility as well as retarded mental acuity. The occurrence of this syndrome is in the frequency of 1 in every 700 individuals (Pinsky, Erickson and Schimke 257). With the realization of the fact that sex chromosomes have defects that can lead to the changes in the phenotypic characteristics of individuals has sparked a series of researches in the field of genetics. One of the current research researches that is currently on going is the identification of the component of that is essential

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